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European Commission considers nuclear a low carbon source of hydrogen

The European Commission will consider hydrogen produced from nuclear power as “low-carbon”, Paula Abreu Marques, head of unit for renewables and CCS policy at the European Commission’s energy directorate told the European Parliament on 16 November.

On 8 July, the European Commission adopted the EU Hydrogen Strategy, which sets out how hydrogen can support the decarbonisation of industry, transport, power generation and buildings. The strategy addresses the investments, regulation, market creation, and research and innovation required to enable this.

European-commission-nuclear-energyThe strategy says that between 2020 and 2024 the European Commission will support the installation of at least 6 GW of renewable hydrogen electrolysers in the EU, and the production of up to 1 million tonnes of renewable hydrogen. From 2025 to 2030, there needs to be at least 40 GW of renewable hydrogen electrolysers and the production of up to 10 million tonnes of renewable hydrogen in the EU. From 2030 to 2050, renewable hydrogen technologies should reach maturity and be deployed at large scale across all hard-to-decarbonise sectors, it says.

“Hydrogen can power sectors that are not suitable for electrification and provide storage to balance variable renewable energy flows, but this can only be achieved with coordinated action between the public and private sector, at EU level,” the Commission said. “The priority is to develop renewable hydrogen, produced using mainly wind and solar energy. However, in the short and medium term other forms of low-carbon hydrogen are needed to rapidly reduce emissions and support the development of a viable market,” it added.

The strategy defines ‘renewable hydrogen’ as “hydrogen produced through the electrolysis of water (in an electrolyser, powered by electricity), and with the electricity stemming from renewable sources. It says ‘low-carbon hydrogen’ “encompasses fossil-based hydrogen with carbon capture and electricity-based hydrogen, with significantly reduced full life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to existing hydrogen production.” The strategy, however, did not specifically mention nuclear power among low-carbon electricity sources.

The European Commission wants hydrogen to be complementary to a renewables-based energy system with renewable electricity at its core, Marques told the European Parliament’s committee on environment, public health and food safety.

Rosatom announced today that preparatory work for the construction of four new reactors has commenced

Rosenergoatom said the corresponding decision to construct the units was signed by Rosatom Director General Alexey Likhachov following a meeting on the organisation of work on the construction of reactors in Russia and the appointment of those responsible for the implementation of investment projects. It noted that the new units at Smolensk and Leningrad II are included in the general plan for the placement of electric power facilities until 2035, already approved by the Russian government. Likhachov noted that VVER-1200 and VVER-TOI reactors are being built not only in Russia, but also abroad. He said they use “the most advanced achievements and developments that meet all modern international safety requirements”.

For the new Smolensk II and Leningrad II units, Rosenergoatom will act as the technical contractor for both investment projects. Atomproekt JSC and Atomenergoproekt JSC will act as the chief designer of the Leningrad II and Smolensk II units, respectively.

By the end of this year, a project for the preparatory work will begin at the construction site for the new units 3 and 4 at Leningrad II. Temporary accommodation and an industrial base will be built at the construction site. Between 2020 and 2022, public hearings will be held on the substantiation of the licence and environmental impact assessment of the new units to obtain a construction licence.

Leningrad II will have four VVER-1200 units. Leningrad unit 1 was shut down for decommissioning on 21 December last year. Leningrad II unit 1 was connected to the grid on 9 March 2018, becoming the second VVER-1200 reactor to start up, following the launch in 2016 of Novovoronezh unit 6.

The new Smolensk II plant – featuring two VVER-TOI (typical optimised, with enhanced information) reactors with a total capacity of 2510 MWe – will be built 6 km from the existing Smolensk plant. The first VVER-TOI unit is under construction as part of the Kursk II nuclear power project. By the end of 2020, it is planned to develop and approve an action plan for the Smolensk II investment project and open financing for the implementation of measures in accordance with the plan. Smolensk II is to replace the three RBMK reactors at Smolensk I, which are expected to remain in operation until the new plant starts to come online.

Commenting on the construction of the four new units, Rosenergoatom General Director Andrei Petrov said: “The new power units will replace the units with RBMK-1000 reactors, whose service life will end in the next decade. According to preliminary estimates, the construction at two sites at once will create up to 15,000 new jobs, will provide regular tax revenues to regional and local budgets.”

IAEA Steps Up To Help With Covid -19 Detection

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said it was dispatching a preliminary batch of equipment to more than 40 countries to enable them to use a nuclear-derived technique to rapidly detect the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

This emergency assistance is part of the IAEA’s response to requests for support from around 90 Member States in controlling an increasing number of infections worldwide, the agency said.  Showing strong support for the initiative, several countries have announced major funding contributions for the IAEA’s efforts in helping to tackle the pandemic.

Dozens of laboratories in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean will receive diagnostic machines and kits, reagents and laboratory consumables to speed up national testing, which is crucial in containing the outbreak. They will also receive biosafety supplies, such as personal protection equipment and laboratory cabinets for the safe analysis of collected samples. Further deliveries of equipment to the growing number of countries seeking assistance are expected in the coming weeks.

“IAEA staff are working hard to ensure that this critical equipment is delivered as quickly as possible where it is most needed,” said IAEA Director General Rafael Mariano Grossi. “Providing this assistance to countries is an absolute priority for the Agency.” The IAEA is using its own resources as well as extrabudgetary funding for its emergency COVID-19 assistance. Member States have so far announced more than €9.5 million in extrabudgetary financial contributions to the IAEA for this purpose, including US $6 million from the United States, CAD $5 million from Canada and €500 000 from the Netherlands. Australia has also made an important contribution.

In addition, China has informed the IAEA about donations of detection equipment, kits, reagents and other medical materials worth US $2 million and the provision of expert services.

After his telephone conversation last week with the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Mr Grossi said the IAEA is taking concrete and coordinated action to support global efforts against the pandemic. The IAEA is now also part of the UN Crisis Management Team on COVID-19. The first batch of supplies, worth around €4 million, will help countries use the technique known as real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). This is the most sensitive technique for detecting viruses currently available. The nuclear-derived DNA amplification method originally used radioactive isotope markers to detect genetic material from a virus in a sample.

Subsequent refining of the technique has led to the more common use today of fluorescent markers instead. “Real-time RT-PCR is an established and accurate method to detect pathogens. We’ve seen the number of Member State requests for support to run such tests more than double in the past two weeks,” said Ivancho Naletoski, technical officer at the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/IAEA Division for Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture.

“Laboratories will receive diagnostic kits and accessories needed for the analysis, disposable protective gear and equipment for the molecular detection of this specific viral genome,” Natetoski said.

In recent weeks, the IAEA, in collaboration with the FAO, has provided guidance on coronavirus detection to 124 laboratory professionals in 46 Member States through VETLAB, a network of veterinary laboratories in Africa and Asia originally set up by the two organizations to combat the cattle disease rinderpest. The support included the provision of Standard Operating Procedures to identify the virus following WHO recommendations. VETLAB helps participating countries to improve the early detection of transboundary animal and zoonotic diseases, such as Ebola and COVID-19.

IAEA launches project to examine economics of Small Modular Reactors

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is launching a three-year Coordinated Research Project focused on the economics of small modular reactors (SMRs). The project will provide Member States with an economic appraisal framework for the development and deployment of such reactors. Small Modular Reactors are of interest to the nuclear community due to their economic scale and faster deployment.

The IAEA said it had launched the project in response to increased interest in SMRs, noting that multiple SMR projects are currently under development (involving about 50 designs and concepts) and at varying technology readiness levels. Their costs and delivery times need to be adequately estimated, analysed and optimised, it said. Specific business models have to be developed to address the market’s needs and expectations. The market itself should be large enough to sustain demand for components and industrial support services. However, the economic impact of SMR development and deployment must be quantified and communicated to gain societal support, it said.

Participants in the research project will cover: market research; analysis of the competitive landscape (SMR vs non-nuclear alternatives); value proposition and strategic positioning; project planning cost forecasting and analysis; project structuring, risk allocation and financial valuation; business planning and business case demonstration; and economic cost-benefit analysis.

The framework they establish will be applied, in particular, to assess the economics of multiples (serial production of reactors in a factory setting), factory fabrication (conditions to be met for a factory to exist), and supply chain localisation (opportunities and impacts).

The deadline for proposals to participate in the research project is 30 April.

In early 2018, the IAEA announced it was forming a Technical Working Group to guide its activities on SMRs and provide a forum for Member States to share information and knowledge. The group, comprising some 20 IAEA Member States and international organisations, held its first meeting in April that year.

COVID-19 Coronavirus and Nuclear Energy

  • Nuclear reactors have a key role to play in many countries in ensuring that electricity supplies are maintained during the COVID-19 crisis.
  • Reactor operators are taking steps to protect their workforce and are implementing business continuity plans to ensure the continuing functioning of key aspects of their businesses.
  • Operations are being halted at some facilities where necessary or deemed appropriate to prevent the spread of the virus and protect workers.
  • Nuclear technologies are also being used to detect and fight the virus.

Nuclear energy’s role in maintaining electricity supplies

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The global pandemic has required dramatic action to be taken in all aspects of life worldwide.​

Maintaining reliable electricity supplies and ‘keeping the lights on’ is vital. Nuclear generation supplies around 10.5% of electricity worldwide and contributes to electricity generation in over 30 countries. In many countries nuclear employees have been identified as among the key workers that are essential to maintaining important infrastructure.

Nuclear generation has two characteristics that will assist in maintaining supplies. Firstly, in most reactors, fuel assemblies are used for around three years. There is therefore greater security of supply than for fossil fuel plants, which require a constant feed of coal or gas. Reloads of fuel take place every 12-18 months and operating companies are developing strategies to focus on refuelling during outages to reduce the number of staff required.  Secondly, nuclear reactors operate with high capacity factors, providing a more reliable, constant supply than some intermittent renewables, such as wind and solar.

Nevertheless, all forms of electricity generation will need to take action to ensure continued operation. In addition, it will also be necessary to maintain the distribution network, including electricity grids.

Responses to protect workers and ensure continued operations

The nuclear industry is taking action in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus to protect workers and reduce transmission of the virus. A strong safety culture already exists in the nuclear industry worldwide.

Actions taken depend on the guidance and directives implemented in different countries and regions. The fact that the virus first affected the Wuhan region of China some weeks before becoming a global pandemic has meant that companies elsewhere in the world have been able to implement business continuity plans and prepare for the impacts of the virus.

Measures to screen workers and detect those who may have the virus include temperature checks to identify fever, a common symptom of COVID-19.

In countries where it is advised or required, remote working has been implemented for those staff not required to work on-site. This reduces the number of staff on-site, which can help in implementing social distancing measures. Other ways to enhance social distancing include staggering staff meal breaks to reduce the number of staff using canteens at the same time or staggering the start and end of shifts to reduce the number of staff arriving / leaving at the same time.

Companies are also restricting or cancelling non-essential business travel and using conference video and audio calls for meetings, even for those employees still working on-site.

To ensure the health of key workers in areas where the incidence of COVID-19 may increase significantly, other measures that are being considered include changing shift patterns. Additionally, some companies are making preparations by securing supplies of food, beds and other essentials to allow workers to stay on-site to minimize their contact with others in the event that this is required. Key nuclear plant staff may also stay in dedicated accommodation and travel to and from site in separate transportation.

In addition, the importance of maintaining high levels of hygiene, staying at home and maintaining social distancing away from work will be as high for nuclear workers as it is for everyone.

Managing the impacts of COVID-19 on all areas of nuclear industry operations

In many countries operations in different parts of the nuclear industry are, at present, continuing. However, depending on the situation with COVID-19 where they are located, operations not vital to ensuring the continued operation of nuclear power plants may be reduced or stopped.

Mining

Kazatomprom, Kazakhstan’s state-owned uranium production company – which produced 40% of the world’s primary uranium in 2018 – has announced that it will draw on its existing inventory of uranium should its mining operations be affected. Its uranium mining sites are primarily in remote areas in the southern regions of Kazakhstan and to date the pandemic has had no impact on its operations. However, the remoteness of those sites requires that production, maintenance, catering and support staff stay on site and live in close quarters while at work. COVID-19 could pose a significant health and safety concern if an outbreak were to occur in such a setting.

At the Cigar Lake uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, production is being temporarily suspended and the facility in being placed in safe care and maintenance mode during the COVID-19 pandemic. This will reduce the workforce on site from around 300 to 35, enabling improved physical distancing and enhanced safety precautions. In addition, production is being suspended at the McClean Lake uranium mill, where ore from Cigar Lake is normally processed.

Reactor Operations

At the Bruce nuclear power plant activities on the the Major Component Replacement project, which will extend the operating life of the plant, have been narrowed to essential tasks to allow Bruce Power to focus on generating electricity and production of cobalt-60 for medical sterilization.

The reduction in industrial and other activity in countries taking countermeasures against COVID-19 is reducing overall electricity demand. In China some reactors reduced their power output according to the requirements of the grid. As countermeasures are gradually lifted plants are returning to full power.

The Ascó I nuclear plant in Tarragona and Almaraz I in Cáceres, Spain, have announced the rescheduling of their outages for fuel loading.

Construction

Activities on construction sites are being reduced or stopped and new working practices introduced. At the Hinkley Point C plant under construction in the UK staff numbers have been reduced by more than half and will be reduced further as work in progress is completed.

Continuation of work at Rosatom’s overseas construction projects are guided by the recommendations of the disease control services and governments of the respective countries in which construction is taking place.

Work was halted on some reactors under construction in China in response to the COVID-19 virus. As work gradually resumes, countermeasures are being introduced for the employees returning to site.

Waste Management and Decommissioning

At the Sellafield site in Cumbria, UK, the Magnox reprocessing plant has been closed down as a precaution to better prepare it for restart. The Magnox reprocessing plant treats fuel that was used in the UK Magnox reactors, the first generation of reactors used in the country. These reactors were already closed having reached the end of their operational life, and the Magnox reprocessing plant was already due to close in 2020, so this will have no impact on the operation of the UK’s AGR and PWR reactors. In the north-west of France operations at the La Hague reprocessing plant have also been suspended.

Regulation

A number of inspectors from UK’s regulator, ONR, will continue to travel to sites where required but as much business as possible will be carried out by phone, email and Skype. France’s regulator, ASN, is removing non-essential direct physical contact to limit the spread of the virus and giving priority to the control of operating facilities.

Nuclear technology to help combat COVID-19

Nuclear technologies have medical applications that will help combat COVID-19. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is providing diagnostic kits, equipment and training in nuclear-derived detection techniques to countries asking for assistance in tackling the worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus causing COVID-19. The assistance, requested by 14 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, is part of intensified global efforts to contain infections.

In China, industrial irradiation facilities were made available for the treatment of medical supplies, not only to destroy the coronavirus, but also to disinfect and sterilize medical supplies to remove any other virus or bacteria.

In addition, maintaining the operation of reactors used for the preparation of medical isotopes will allow for the continued use of these vital materials for the diagnosis and treatment of other illnesses.


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Nuclear Energy Projects Move Ahead Despite Global Virus Threat

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COVID-19 Nuclear News: Nuclear Industry in EU Begins To Isolate Key Operational Staff

The operators of nuclear power plants in Europe are taking steps to minimize the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. Actions include isolating key staff and stockpiling items workers might need if they are unable to leave a site.

In Europe, Nuclearelectrica, which operates the Cernavodă nuclear power station in Romania, has already isolated about 400 essential operating and production staff at Cernavodă. A spokeswoman told wire services that the measure, based on established emergency plans, will remain in place as long as necessary. The staff are isolated in a specially designated area within the Cernavoda plant site.

France, the world’s most nuclear energy dependent nation, announced staff reductions at its Flamanville nuclear station. EDF said that due to high regional infection rates it was reducing the staff at the plant from 800 to 100.

A spokesman for the Flamanville plant told Reuters that “we have decided to only keep those in charge of safety and security” working while the coronavirus crisis runs its course.

Vattenfall, which owns 10 nuclear reactors in Sweden and Germany, said measures are in place to deal with the outbreak.

”We are well equipped to carry out our yearly outage season and plan to continue to supply fossil-free electricity to our customers, both in the short and long term,” the company said in an email statement.

CEZ, state-owned operator of the Czech Republic’s nuclear fleet, said it has been applying preventive measures since the end of February. Business trips have been suspended and all information centers including those at nuclear plants, have been closed and all excursions and visits to the plants suspended. Bus services used by employees and suppliers to and from nuclear plants are being frequently disinfected.

Last week further preventive measures were applied by CEZ at Temelin, Dukovany and other facilities that are considered critical state infrastructure. The measures include taking the temperature of everyone entering a facility and social distancing in canteens.

Personal meetings have been suspended in favour of electronic means of communication and “several hundred” employees are working from home.

“All these measures are purely preventive [and] we have not registered any case of coronavirus at the nuclear plants so far,” a spokeswoman said.

Madrid-based industry group Foro Nuclear said Spain’s seven commercial nuclear units remain in operation and operators are focused on the security of workers. They have implemented, in conjunction with the regulatory body, measures to protect workers including flexible working hours and remote working in positions that allow it.

New-build projects, including those at Hinkley Point C in England, Hanhkivi-1 in Finland have not been delayed by the outbreak.

Construction at Hinkley Point C in the UK has not been affected by the spread of the Covid-19 coronavirus, but EDF Energy said it will be working with contractors and trades unions to review the developing situation in the coming days and weeks.

Also in the UK, authorities announced they are shutting down a nuclear fuel reprocessing site at Sellafield after 8% of its 11,500-strong staff were forced to self-isolate. The move came after an employee tested positive for the coronavirus and will lead to a gradual shutdown of the site’s Magnox facility, which is scheduled to close permanently later this year.

The UK’s nuclear regulator said it is “actively engaged” with all its nuclear sites to ensure that appropriate contingency plans are in place, given the developing national and international situation.

The Canadian Nuclear Association reported that Canada’s nuclear stations are helping keep hospitals clean and safe during these critical times through the production of cobalt-60. It is a medical isotope used to sterilize medical equipment such as gowns, gloves, masks, implantable devices and syringes in hospitals. It is also used to preserve foods so that they have a long shelf life.

Nuclear Energy Power Plants in the World

Nuclear power plants currently operate in 31 countries. Most are in Europe, North America, East Asia and South Asia. The United States is the largest producer of nuclear power, while France has the largest share of electricity generated by nuclear power. China has the fastest growing nuclear power program with 28 new reactors under construction,and a considerable number of new reactors are also being built in India, Russia and South Korea.

Of the 31 countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belgium, and Hungary use them as the source for a majority of the country’s electricity supply. Other countries have significant amounts of nuclear power generation capacity. By far the largest nuclear electricity producers are the United States with 805 647 GWh of nuclear electricity in 2017, followed by France with 381 846 GWh.

Country

In operation

Under construction

Number

Electr. net output
MW

Number

Electr. net output
MW
Argentina

3

1.632

1

25

Armenia

1

375

Belarus

2

2.218

Belgium

7

5.913

Brazil

2

1.884

1

1.245

Bulgaria

2

1.926

Canada

19

13.524

China

36

31.402

20

20.500

Czech Republic

6

3.930

Finland

4

2.752

1

1.600

France

58

63.130

1

1.630

Germany

8

10.799

Hungary

4

1.889

India

22

6.225

5

2.990

Iran

1

915

Japan

43

40.290

2

2.650

Korea, Republic

25

23.133

3

4.020

Mexico

2

1.440

Netherlands

1

482

Pakistan

4

1.005

3

2.343

Romania

2

1.300

Russian Federation

36

26.557

7

5.468

Slovakian Republic

4

1.814

2

880

Slovenia

1

688

South Africa

2

1.860

Spain

7

7.121

Sweden

10

9.651

Switzerland

5

3.333

Taiwan, China

6

5.052

2

2.600

Ukraine

15

13.107

2

1.900

United Arab Emirates

4

5.380

United Kingdom

15

8.918

USA

99

98.868

4

4.468

Total

450

391.915

60

59.917